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Multiple-Use Water Services

Guide to SolutionMUS Putting Multiple-Use Water Services into Action

An overview of the SolutionMUS approach that provides inspirational examples in multiple contexts, explains the process for putting SolutionMUS into practice, and gives advice to implementers, funders, policymakers and researchers on how to get started.

Author: Winrock International
Publication date: May 2014
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File Size: 5.09 MB
Keywords: Implementation, Planning, Multiple-Use Water Services

Guidelines for Planning and Providing Multiple-Use Water Services

An introduction to Multiple-Use Water Services; guidelines for planning MUS projects and developing an enabling environment; and examples of tools and methods provided by various projects and programs from around the world.

Authors: MUS Group – Adank, M., van Koppen, B., and Smits, S.
Publication date: 2012
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 1.97 MB
Keywords: Implementation, Planning, Participatory Methods, Multiple-Use Water Services

Climbing the Water Ladder Multiple-Use Water Services for Poverty Reduction

An introduction to Multiple-Use Water Services; an analysis of a number of case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America; and an analysis of two models of MUS: homestead- and community-scale MUS. The approach looks at different levels of water service and the uses and livelihoods that can be derived from them.

Authors: B. van Koppen, S. Smits, P. Moriarty, F. Penning de Vries, M. Mikhail and E. Boelee
Publication date: 2009
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 3.64 MB
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Case Studies, Water, Livelihoods, Poverty Reduction

 

Water Services

Technology Applicability Framework & Technology Introduction Process (TAF & TIP)

An approach for investigating the potential for adoption of new WASH technologies through the objective examination of certain criteria from three perspectives: the user, the implementer/producer and the regulator/investor. The approach uses the following key sustainability indicators:

• Technology performance
• Market potential and scalability
• Institutional support
• Innovation and planning
• Sustainable service provision
• Potential and process uptake of new technologies

Author: Washtech, maintained by IRC Water and Sanitation Centre
Link: Website  (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Implementation, Planning, Participatory Methods, Water Services Technology

WASHCost

WASHCost is a life-cycle costs approach that examines the complex relationships among expenditure, service delivery, poverty, effectiveness and sustainability. The tool is based on studies in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Andhra Pradesh (India) and Mozambique, which collected and analyzed cost and service level information for water, sanitation and hygiene in rural and peri-urban areas.

Author: WASHCost, maintained by IRC Water and Sanitation Centre
Link: Website (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Implementation, Planning, Water Services

WHO Water Safety Plan: A Field Guide to Improving Drinking-Water Safety in Small Communities

A guide for developing WHO recommended Water Safety Plans, which aim to assess, protect and maintain water services. Its intended audiences include local health or water supply offices, local government authorities, nongovernmental organizations and other community based organizations.

Author: World Health Organization (WHO)
Publication date: 2014
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File Size: 5.61 MB
Keywords: Implementation, Planning, Participatory Methods, Water Services

EMPOWERS Approach to Water Governance Guidelines, Methods, and Tools

Overview of Water Governance and the EMPOWERS approach including information on facilitation and capacity development as well as the management cycle. Includes a host of tools for participatory learning and action, assessment, engaging stakeholders and monitoring.

Authors: Partick Moriarty, Charles Batchelor, FIras T. Abd-Alhadi, Peter Laban, Hazem Fahmy
Publication date: August 2007
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: .98 MB
Keywords: Implementation, Planning, Participatory Methods, Water Services

Linking Technology Choice with Operation and Maintenance in the Context of Community Water Supply and Sanitation

A document to help decision-makers from bilateral, multilateral and governmental agencies identify the most appropriate technology for water-supply or sanitation projects in their area. This guide contains information on a number of technologies including water sources and intakes, water-lifting devices, power systems, water treatment methods, storage and distribution methods, and sanitation technologies.

Author: World Health Organization (WHO); Francois Brikké and Maarten Bredero
Publication date: 2003
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 2.39 MB
Keywords: Implementation, Planning, Participatory Methods, Water Services, Technology, Policy Maker, Donor

 

Health

Barrier Analysis Facilitator’s Training Guide

A tool for improving behavior change communication in child survival and community development programs. This guide walks a facilitator through planning and implementing a four-day workshop on barrier analysis. The guide includes information on facilitating each session and activities for participants, covering both understanding barrier analysis and how to conduct barrier analysis.

Author: Food for the Hungry
Publication date: December 2004; updated 2010
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 468 KB
Keywords: Health, Planning, Implementation, Manual, Behavior Change

BEHAVE Framework

A manual covering the BEHAVE framework, a strategic planning tool for managers of programs with behavior change components. The manual is designed to assist program managers in accurately defining target audiences, required behaviors to solve health problems, determinants of behaviors that should be reduced and the best behavior change strategies.

Author: Fhi360
Link: Website (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Health, Planning, Implementation, Manual, Behavior Change

Integrating Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene into Nutrition Programming

Guidance on key Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) practices and how to integrate them into nutrition assessments, nutrition counseling and promotion, maternal and neonatal programs, and community services.

Author: WashPlus
Publication date: May 2013
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 3.08 MB
Keywords: Health, Nutrition, Planning, Implementation

SaniFOAM: A Framework to Analyze Sanitation Behaviors and Design Sanitation Programs

A guide that specifically walks through behavioral determinants related to sanitation to inform the design of sanitation programs.

Authors: World Bank WSP Program
Publication date: October 2009
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 3.07 MB
Keywords: Health, Sanitation, Behavior Change, Planning, Implementation

Building the Capacity of Local Government to Scale-Up Community-Led Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing in Rural Areas

An overview of total sanitation and sanitation marketing (TSSM), management models, lessons learned, building local government capacity and challenges local governments face.

Authors: World Bank WSP Program
Publication date: April 2010
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 3.5 MB
Keywords: Health, Sanitation, Behavior Change, Planning, Implementation

WASH Training Package for the Prevention of Diarrheal Disease for Outreach Workers 

A training guide for organizations that seek to add WASH activities to their current programs or to start a diarrhea reduction program.

Authors: Fhi360, The Hygiene Improvement Project (HIP)
Link: Website (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Health, Community Health Workers, WASH, Training

 

Livelihoods

Sustaining Communities, Livestock and Wildlife: A Guide to Participatory Land-Use Planning

A guide designed to help communities and policy-makers at local and national levels make informed choices regarding land use, business ventures and public policy in pastoral areas, particularly in semi-arid regions of East Africa. The guide gives an overview for policymakers and explains the whys and hows of implementing participatory land-use planning.

Authors: African Wildlife Foundation (AWF), the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the United Republic of Tanzania, the Global Environmental Fund (GEF) and the World Bank
Publication date: 2009
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 1.93 MB
Key words: Land Use Planning, Livelihoods, Environment, East Africa, Implementation, Planning, Policy Makers

 

Environment

User’s Guide on Assessing Water Governance

The why, what and how of conducting water governance assessments including tools and case studies from multiple regions. The guide enables users to conduct proper assessments of water governance structures to inform policy making, set appropriate indicators and build consensus for water sector reform.

Authors: UNDP Water governance Facility, SIWI, Water Integrity Network
Publication date: 2013
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 2.91 MB
Keywords: Planning, Policy, Implementation, Water, Environment, Governance

Participatory Tools and Techniques for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Exploring Adaptation Options: A Community Based Toolkit for Practitioners

A resource for practitioners to help local forest user groups and households build the capacity to adapt to climate change. This guide includes 13 participatory tools including instructions for facilitation, examples and guidance notes.

Authors: UKAID, Livelihoods & Forestry Programme (LFP)
Publication date: March 2010
File type: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 492 KB
Key words: Environment, Participatory Methods, South Asia, Toolkit, Climate Change

Population Health & Environment Toolkit

A toolkit for program managers, field practitioners, researchers and academics, and policymakers that links together several publically available resources on Population, Health and Environment (PHE). The toolkit includes materials from a variety of approaches that refer to at least two of the three sectors of population, health and environment.

Authors: K4Health
Link: Website (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Health, Environment, Planning, Implementation, Toolkit

Community-Led Urban Environmental Sanitation Planning: CLUES Complete Guidelines for Decision-Makers with 30 Tools

A guide for planning and implementing environmental sanitation infrastructure and services in urban and peri-urban communities. It builds a framework for planning and walks through how to create an enabling environment.

Authors: Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council, UN Habitat, eawag
Publication date: 2012
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 6.70 MB
Keywords: Environment, Sanitation, Urban, Peri-Urban, Guide, Toolkit, Planning, Participatory Methods

 

Cross-Cutting Activities

IDEO Human-Centered Design Toolkit

An innovation guide designed with social enterprises and NGOs in mind. Using the Human-Centered Design approach this toolkit guides organizations in developing products and designing projects that center around the needs, wants and limitations of end-users and beneficiaries.

Authors: IDEO
Link: Website (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Planning, Human Centered Design

Integrating Gender throughout a Project’s Life Cycle: A Guidance Document for International Development Organizations and Practitioners

A guide on integrating gender over the life cycle of a project from proposal development and project design, to project management, communications, and monitoring and evaluation.

Authors: Land o’ Lakes
Publication date: November 2013
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 5.79 MB
Keywords: Gender, Planning, Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation, Proposal Development, Communications

Gender and Climate Change Research in Agriculture and Food Security for Rural Development: Training Guide

A guide to promote gender-responsive and socially-sensitive climate change research and development in the agriculture and food security sectors through participatory approaches. The guide walks through gender concepts and frameworks and how gender relates to climate change issues in agriculture and food security. It provides the user with a toolkit as well as guidelines on how to complete fieldwork through a gender-lens.

Authors: The CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Publication date: 2012
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 1.67 MB
Keywords: Gender, Climate Change, Environment

Participatory Vulnerability Analysis: A Step-by-Step Guide for Field Staff

A guide to understanding vulnerability and conducting participatory vulnerability analysis (PVA).

Authors: ActionAid International
Publication date: n/a
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 188 KB
Keywords: Vulnerability, Planning, Implementation, Guide, Toolkit

How to Guide to Conflict Sensitivity

An introduction to conflict analysis, conflict sensitivity in the program cycle, assessing institutional capacity for conflict sensitivity and building capacity for conflict sensitivity.

Authors: Conflict Sensitivity Consortium
Publication date: February 2012
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 1.10 MB
Keywords: Planning, Implementation, Conflict

 

Multiple-Use Water Services for the Poor: Assessing the State of Knowledge

An assessment of the costs, benefits and poverty impacts of Multiple-Use Water Services for populations that could be reached in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The study was conducted by Winrock International in collaboration with IRC and IWMI.

Authors: Winrock International, International Water and Sanitation Centre, International Water Management Institute
Publication date: December 2007
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 5.29 MB
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Cost Benefit Analysis, sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Market Assessment

Annex – Multiple-Use Water Services for the Poor: Assessing the State of Knowledge

The annex of the Multiple-Use Water Services for the Poor study conducted by Winrock International in collaboration with IRC and IWMI. This annex contains case studies, notes on methodology, additional details on results and the reports bibliography.

Authors: Winrock International, International Water and Sanitation Centre, International Water Management Institute
Publication date: December 2007
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
File size: 1.59 MB
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Cost Benefit Analysis, Methods, Case Study, sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Market Assessment

Households’ Motivations for Investing in Multiple-Use Water Services in Rural Burkina Faso

Article from Johns Hopkins Water Institute discussing users’ motivations for investing in low-cost water technologies in rural Burkina Faso. Concentrates primarily on income generation and livelihoods of women.

Authors: Sara J. Marks, Luke H. MacDonald
Publication date: December 2013
Link: Website (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, livelihoods, women, gender, income generation, Burkina Faso, West Africa

 

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Solution Stories

Burkina Faso

Burkinabé Household Invests in Upgrading Traditional Well

Upgrading traditional wells provides more water for productive uses.

Publication date: March 2014
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Burkina Faso, WA-WASH, Water Services, Private Sector, Low-Cost Technologies

Household Self-Investment Sustainably Meets Real Water Needs

Convenience, safety, and income generation opportunities make upgrading wells worthwhile in rural Burkina Faso.

Publication date: March 2014
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Burkina Faso, WA-WASH, Water Services, Private Sector,  Low-Cost Technologies

MUS Meets Local Needs of Clients and Creates Jobs for Local Private Enterprises

Low-cost technologies make improved wells affordable for rural families and drives business for local entrepreneurs.

Publication date: March 2014
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Burkina Faso, WA-WASH, Private Sector, Water Services, Low-Cost Technology

Pauline Kangoro – Moringa Producer

In 2013, USAID WA-WASH identified Pauline Kangoro as a leader in her community for the production of moringa and sent her for training at the ICRISAT center in Niger along with a group of nine other gardeners. One year later, Pauline was invited to the Ghana Permaculture Institute to learn how to process moringa for cosmetic uses.

Publication date: December 2014
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Burkina Faso, WA-WASH, Private Sector, Water Services, Nutrition, Value-Added Small-Scale Enterprises, Health, Ghana

Nepal

Water Brings Health and Wealth to Nepal

A combination of more water and technical training allow rural Nepali families to substantially increase their income.

Publication date: 2009
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Nepal, SIMI, Health, Livelihoods

Niger

A Kabori Story – Multiple-Use Water Services in Niger

A Nigerien family struggles with limited water access until a combination of technologies helps them meet all of their water needs.

Publication date: December 2010
Link: PDF(Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Niger, WAWI, Livelihoods, Water Services, Low-Cost Technology

Cluster Repairmen Attend In-Depth Rope Pump Training Repair Course

Technical training ensures sustainability of community water points.

Publication date: December 2010
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Niger, WAWI, Private Sector, Water Services, Low-cost Technology

Handwashing Stations: Convenient and Healthy

Is an investment of 71 cents just as important as $2,000 dollars? This family thinks so.

Publication date: December 2010
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Niger, WAWI, Health, Hygiene

Tanzania

Juma Mape: Manual Well Driller

With training and support, a local well driller becomes a financially successful entrepreneur.

Publication date: September 2013
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Tanzania, iWASH, Private Sector, Water Services, Low-Cost Technology

Lavina Venance: Small-Scale Organic Vegetable Producer

Levina doubted that a simple kitchen garden could transform her life, but it has.

Publication date: September 2013
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Tanzania, iWASH, Livelihoods

Peter Mbuya: Improved Poultry Production

More water and technical training means more chickens; And more chickens means a better house, school, and maybe even a car.

Publication date: September 2013
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Tanzania, iWASH, Livelihoods

 

Videos

Keep the Water Flowing (2:32)

An animated short video introducing the concept of Multiple-Use Water Services.

Link: Youtube (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Health, Livelihoods, Water Services

A Kabori Story: Multiple-Use Water Services in Niger (7:33)

Ali and Hadiza are working with Winrock’s Multiple Use Water Services Project to bring irrigation and drinking water to their village of Kabori, Niger.

Link: English / French (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Water Services, Low-Cost Technologies, Health, Livelihoods, Private Sector

Assessing and Planning Water Services with SolutionMUS (4:50)

Unlike most rural water supply programs, SolutionMUS makes no assumptions about clients’ water needs. This video describes SolutionMUS’ participatory approach to assessing and planning water services known as water accounting.

Link: YouTube (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, , Water Services, Water Accounting, Planning and Assessment, Real-time Data

Managing Integrated Water Services with SolutionMUS (8:45)

Ensuring sustainable water service delivery requires effective management. SolutionMUS accomplishes this by ensuring that four key building are in place: structures for governance, sustainable financing, a functioning supply chain and post-construction support. The SolutionMUS approach to management can be applied at any scale – this video explores the application of the key building blocks in three models: small group management, community management and multi-village management.

Link: YouTube (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Water Services, Governance, Sustainable Financing, Supply Chain, Post-construction support, Burkina Faso, Tanzania

Promoting Local Supply Chains with SolutionMUS (4:30)

Whenever clients’ water needs can be addressed by local entrepreneurs, SolutionMUS seeks to catalyze scalable, market-based solutions taking demand and supply into account. See how SolutionMUS enhances the scalability and sustainability of water services by working across the supply chain of water-related products and services.

Link: YouTube (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Health, Livelihoods, Water Services

Improving People’s Livelihoods with SolutionMUS: Small Livestock (3:53)

Most livelihood activities require water. Productive water services alone increase income and food security but the benefits of this productive water can be solidified and amplified through targeted livelihoods support programs. This video tells the story of Peter Mbuya, a poultry and goat farmer who benefited from water for productive activities and received targeted support to professionalize and expand his operation.

Link: YouTube (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Livelihoods, Productive Water Services, Poultry, Goat, Tanzania

Improving People’s Livelihoods with SolutionMUS: Livestock and Gardening (4:06)

Most livelihood activities require water. Productive water services alone increase income and food security but the benefits of this productive water can be solidified and amplified through targeted livelihoods support programs. This video tells the story of Nyakonge, a pastoralist village in Eastern Tanzania whose residents took advantage of the SolutionMUS model to improve their livestock and gardening activities.

Link: YouTube (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Livelihoods, Livestock, Gardening, Nutrition, Tanzania, Productive Water Services

In the Media

Improving Efficiency with Multiple-Use Systems in Nepal Global Waters Magazine: Faith, Water, & Development, Vol. IV, Issue III, Pages 13-15

An article by USAID on Winrock’s Multiple-Use Water Services work under the USAID/Nepal’s Education for Income Generation (EIG) project, which combined the provision of Multiple-Use Water Services to households with education in literacy, business, hygiene, nutrition and agriculture.

Author: USAID
Publication date: September 2013
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Livelihoods, Women, Gender, Income Generation, Nepal

Priming the Water Pump: Multiple-Use Water Services in Niger Global Waters Magazine Global Water Issue. Pages 125-127

An article in Global Waters about Winrock International’s Multiple-Use Water Services project in Zinder, Niger, covering the reasons why improved water systems often break down and how Multiple-Use Water Services lead to greater water services sustainability.

Author: Mary Renwick, Emily Kovich, Kees Vogt, Maman Yacouba (US State Department)
Publication date: 2011
Link: PDF (Opens in a new window)
Keywords: Multiple-Use Water Services, Women, Gender, Health, Sustainability, Niger, West Africa